To help figure out how people who make and test websites go through the process of testing websites, I'm interviewing people who make and test websites. It's a crazy idea.
If you make or test websites and want to help shape tools built to make your life easier, drop me an email (email@example.com) with the subject “interview me” to get things started.
I recently interviewed professional web tester Tom Batey.
Find out how Tom and the company he owns and built test websites, the tools they use and the approach taken to testing.
Tom owns and works for WebDepend, a company dedicated to the testing of websites, built from the need for what he experienced as lacking:
When I was a project manager delivering projects for clients I could see that testing often had to be rushed and really needed dedicated QA staff but there weren't any available so I decided this was a route that was worth pursuing.
WebDepend provide professional testing services directly to site owners for organisations including David Lloyd Leisure, Jane Clayton & Company, Cutler and Gross as well as to digital agencies such as OPX and Graymatter.
Tom works on projects ranging from a few days to few months, depending on the scope of the site being tested, covering both new sites and regular re-testing of existing sites as changes are made.
Are you primarily a developer who carries out testing while developing, or a dedicated tester?
I am a dedicated tester and have some development knowledge but not really enough to actually develop anything. I've been in the industry for over 15 years, mostly working in different roles in digital agencies throughout that time from Account Manager, Project Manager and even Account Director plus I ran my own small agency for a few years.
What size team do you work in? How many other developers, testers and so on do you interact with on a daily basis?
At WebDepend there are 2 of us full time and then we bring in further freelance testers as we need them.
We generally interact with project managers, developers and other QA staff but, depending on the client, can sometimes also work with business owners, Marketing or IT teams.
For most of the projects we work on there are no other testers involved and so we are working alongside project managers and reporting issues to developers.
Items To Test
When carrying out functional testing, and aside from checking whether a specific functional area works as required, what do you check for?In other words, do you have something akin to a checklist of items that you look to test?
For each project I will put together a test plan or a checklist of the areas that I need to cover. I also add to that further standard items that pretty much every web project should have, which will be a mixture of web standards, best practice and items that I believe mean a better quality website.
I then run through that checklist on each browser and mobile device that we are including as part of the scope of the testing. So aside from testing whether something actually works correctly I am checking that the layout of items on the page, the styling of elements and the ability to use those elements is first of all correct and second is consistent across all the browsers I am testing.
With responsive websites I am also checking that the website provides the correct layout depending on the device, screen size and orientation that I am testing on. Plus I check that any responsive elements, such as a swipeable image gallery, can be used correctly.
As I test across each browser and each mobile device I'll also pick up areas that are confusing or difficult to use plus navigation items, headings or button labels that don't make sense or other areas that might frustrate the user. Some of these issues might not be bugs as such but I'll report anything that I believe could improve the website and make it better for the user.
I will also spend some time carrying out exploratory testing and not referring to the checklist that I've prepared. I'll try and put myself in the mind of the user and carry out journeys that I think they will take, perform actions that they might perform and build in 'uncertainty' around the journey I'm performing. This imagines a user is not certain of the action they need to carry out, so they might click the back button or want to go back to the homepage or look for a sitemap or not fill in a form correctly or make a mistake. For example, on a travel website, if you search for hotel room availability between certain dates, can you start to proceed with a booking then backtrack and choose different dates? Some websites 'lose' their ability to remember what you searched for if you use the back button or do something unexpected.
The amount of testing that we can do for each project will depend on the budget we've agreed with our client and I need to estimate this budget correctly and agree with the client how much testing will be carried out and what that testing will be made up of.
Assuming you have a checklist of items that you look to test (this seems quite common), which would you consider the highest priority such that it would block a site from being related live (or which you'd advise should be fixed as soon as possible if already live)?
First of all, I need to make sure I can test an entire website and run through the full checklist of items. If I get halfway through the checklist and there is an issue that prevents me from completing the testing then that becomes a blocker and is the highest priority to fix at that point.
Next on the list of priorities would be areas that are fundamental to the website. For an ecommerce site those fundamental areas would be to find a product, add it to the shopping basket and go through the checkout process. So can that fundamental user journey be carried out across all the browsers and mobile devices? I've found issues before where the layout breaks in a particular browser that means the Add to basket button doesn't work or the checkout process might be really frustrating to use on an iPhone for example. Those would be high priority issues to fix.
Anything that cuts off a large amount of users from being able to carry out a fundamental task would be high priority. If something functionally works but is impossible on a particular device or in a specific browser then that could affect a large percentage of the traffic coming to the site. If there are big accessibility issues then those would also be high priority.
What tools do you use to examine the quality factors against which you're testing? What tools are used for what tests?
In terms of functional testing, I am pretty much entirely manual although I'm planning to use tools for some repeatable test cases where we might have an ongoing testing schedule for a client. For example, we're planning on using Selenium for a particular project to test a range of enquiry forms to make sure those forms can always be submitted every time the developers deploy a new release. We will still perform some manual tests but Selenium can repeat the same tests across a number of different web browsers so we don't have to carry out as many tests manually.
Similarly, we have used an automated tool called Nimsoft Cloud User Experience Monitor (used to be Watchmouse) to test that specific user journeys are always working and also monitor the performance of those user journeys. So if the user journey was to find a product, add it to a basket and go to the checkout, we would use Nimsoft to run that every 15 minutes and continually monitor the performance of it. Nimsoft will send us alerts if one of the steps goes over a certain threshold and an investigation can then take place as to what is happening that might cause that step to suffer from poor performance or stop working altogether. It is a great early warning system for live websites.
Another area I'm interested in is testing a website's SEO and I use tools from a company called Moz to scan a site and give me results showing me missing or duplicate title tags, meta descriptions and potential duplicate content problems, which are important for SEO but can also affect a user's experience of the site. For example, if every title tag is the same then that is not really helpful for users or for search engines.
Then obviously I use Simply Testable to enable me to gain an appreciation of code quality and adherence to HTML and CSS standards.
Are there any aspects for which there are no tools to support you? For example, you might check that a site has a custom 404 page instead of the default Apache 404 page, and you find you always have to check this by hand.
For me, the majority of what I test is manual and in my view should be manual. I want to use the website as a user would in order to understand the main issues and problems that a user would face, as well as test that functions are working in the way that they are supposed to work.
I like to use automated tools that enable me to cover more of the website, especially large websites, and give me insight into areas that I've not been able to get to manually. This is not really functionality but a spell check of an entire website would be a good automated tool. There are some existing tools that check the spelling and grammar for a website already but none that I regularly use in my standard checklist yet.
In terms of the 404 page example, I'll always want to manually check that a custom 404 page is in place because I also want to check how good it is. It isn't enough for there to be a custom 404 page, it should be helpful to the user and enable them to find what they were looking for or go back to the home page or contact someone who can help them.
Pain Points and One-Click Magic
Are there any tests, relative to the project as a whole, that are a pain to carry out? For example, an accessibility related test might concern checking that all images have sensible alt text and whilst a tool can tell you if image alt text is outright missing you find you still spend (far too much) time having to manually verify that alt text is not nonsense.
That is a key aspect between using automated tools and manual testing. On the whole, the tool will tell you if alt text is there or not but if the tool tells you that alt text is present it doesn't mean that the alt text is correct. Automated tools allow you to cover more ground and get further into the testing but you still need to go and look at the alt text, as you say, to make sure it makes sense and correctly describes the image.
Another example is title tags, there are tools that tell you a title tag is missing and you can also get tools that tell you if a title tag is very short or is very long. But you still need to review the title tag and see if it makes sense and correctly describes the page.
Generally, it is not possible to review all the title tags, meta descriptions, alt tags, etc. that there might be in a website so we have to prioritise our time and only review the most important pages whilst using tools such as Simply Testable to cover the whole site finding all the missing items or the broken links.
“I wish I had a button I could click that would do this for me automatically” - what first springs to mind, or what is the most significant thing that springs to mind, when reading that?
Well, you've already built some of the features I requested for Simply Testable, which is great.
Something we're doing more is to carry out basic tests to measure the performance of websites and being able to test items at a code level for a whole website would be great. So an automated test to check whether all images have been optimised as much as they can be or whether CSS and JS files have been minified and combined plus any other aspects of the code or images that could indicate potential performance improvements.
And That's The End of The Interview
I'd like to thank Tom for both taking his time to answer my questions and for the valuable insights the answers provide.
The more people I can talk to on these subjects, the better Simply Testable can be for those who need to test websites.
If you make or test websites and want to help shape tools built to make your life easier, drop me an email (firstname.lastname@example.org) with the subject interview me to get things started.